Asian Countries

Published: 2021-09-29 00:15:03
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Category: Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia

Type of paper: Essay

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Asian countries are strong in culture values and intelligent minds. It have given birth to popular celebrities, famous priests and good politicians, (Sweetman, K. 2012). However, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia are multi-ethnic societies with Malays, Chinese and Indians, (Commisceo Global. 2018).
These countries are on ethnicities retain their customs, religions and lifestyles. In Malaysia, people are maintain face and avoid shame. This makes Malaysian strive for harmonious relationships. Indonesia is large diverse nation which have great deal of attention from it government to maintain a cohesion, (Commisceo Global. 2018). Singapore have concepts of group, harmony and mutual security are more important than individual. They also emphasize loyalty, unity and respect for elder.
Power Distance



According to Geert, power distance is attitude of culture towards inequalities in the society, (Hofstede, G. 2011). Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia are scores higher than 71 which is average score of Asian countries, (Sweetman, K. 2012). This shows that Asian culture is more paternalistic, hence people expect and accept different incomes and privileges, (Fanggy, P and Brian, S. 2014).
Subordinates maintain a distance from the bosses and have sense of respect and fear, (Fanggy, P and Brian, S. 2014). In education system, teachers are treated with respect and class is strict order. Moreover, Parents have big authority and respect to parents and elderly lasts during whole life. Therefore, children are not supported to be initiative.
In comparison, Malaysia has higher power distance compare to Singapore and Indonesia. This is because of Malay feudal system and the influence of British, (Fanggy, P and Brian, S. 2014). Thus, Malay culture is very respectful of a complex of titled classes and untitled 'commoners' and to great power to top of organisation.
Individualism
Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia are geared towards a collectivism culture, meaning that the group is more important than individual, (Merkin, R. 2015). Responsibility exists and when one participant breaks the rule then the whole group feels disgraced. Therefore, these countries give more importance to family. Furthermore, harmony is very crucial and open conflict is avoided, (Globig. 2010). 'Saving face' for other is always a goal and bosses always calm and respectful, (Globig. 2010).
In comparison, Indonesian are highly collective comparing with Malaysia and Singapore. This is because they hold their traditions tightly. The principle of Bhineka Tunggal IKa (unity in diversity) was adopted for the republic, (Rahmawati, M. 2010). Moreover, they idea regarding belief in God, humanity, tolerance, democracy and justice are incorporated in the Pancasila (five principle) which reflects country's way of life as the reflection of collectivism, (Rahmawati, M. 2010).
Masculinity
Masculinity focus on societies with assertiveness, materialism and achievements whereas femininity refer to societies of caring, modesty and quality of life, (Blog on Linguistics. 2013). According to Geert, there are slightly differences between Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. Despite, Malaysia is in middle, that consensus and sympathy are important, as are being modest and humble.
However, Singapore and Indonesia have low masculinity which consider as femininity. These countries are social relationship oriented and give importance to quality of life rather than money. Also these give high priority for environmental protection rather than economic growth.
Uncertainty Avoidance
Uncertainty avoidance is the way society handles with the things that will happen in future, (Hofstede, G. 2011). According to the chart, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia are low preference for avoiding uncertainty which are willing to take risk and try new in life. Furthermore, the countries are prefer to maintain more relaxed attitude and punctuality do not come naturally. In addition, these countries are comfortable with ambiguity and chaos and there is no problem when change jobs.
In comparison, although all countries are weak in uncertainty avoidance, Singapore has very low uncertainty avoidance. In other words, Singaporean accepts the change easily and they state their country as Fine country, (Hofstede, G. 2011). Another reason, they also maintain greater level of tolerance towards unorthodox ideas. Therefore, Singapore is more creative than other countries.
Long-Term Orientation
Long term orientation prefer future more importance than past and present, (Hofstede, G. 2011). According to the Geert, Singapore and Indonesia are long term orientated culture which known as 'pragmatism', (Hofstede, G. 2011). Basically, it support long term investment, respect to knowledge, honesty, openness to new thought, responsibility and self-discipline, (Blog on Linguistics. 2013). Therefore, Singapore and Indonesia have strong propensity to save and invest for future, at the same time also focuses on quick result.
In other hand, Malaysia is short term orientated culture which have more focus on their personal well-being and spend very low on environment, (Blog on Linguistics. 2013). Malaysian are primarily respect tradition especially Malays. An addition, they also more concern with 'face saving' and fulfil social obligations. Therefore, they are more independence and focus on quick result compare to Singapore and Indonesia.
Indulgence
Indulgent societies allow free gratification related to enjoying life and have fun, (Globig. 2010). Therefore, Malaysia is indulgent country which majority are happy and most of them are obese. Malaysian have perception of personal life control and focuses more on leisure. Moreover, they educated population with higher birth rates. In other hand, Indonesia have restrained societies that suppress of needs and regulate them by strict social norms, (Globig. 2010).
Hence, Indonesian give lower importance for the leisure. Only few people involved in sports. Country with enough food but less obese people. However, Singapore falls in the middle on this dimension.
Recommendation
As a recommendation, Malaysia should improve on long term orientation. Long term working towards future goal and maintain harmonious relationship for future. Moreover, in business, long term investment will get more profit. Thus, can build strong market position. Singapore should improve on higher uncertainty avoidance. Therefore, Singapore could have more structure and rule, which people do not make mistakes. For example, can reduce car collisions.
It also will increase security rather than taking risks. Indonesia should improve on individualism. It brings respects on individual rights and do not require people to change their true personalities for society. Furthermore, individual society motivated people to strive for success. Moreover, individualism can reduce the country's tax pay.

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