These domains are important in development because they focus on the whole child. New theories and methods have been found due to research in this area, with specific regard to teaching that promotes development in the schools. Also there are some theories that aim to describe a sequence of different states that make child development. Explanation and example of holistic development Holistic development is an individual’s development in the following areas; intellectual, emotional, social, physical, artistic, creative and religious values and feelings. It is the development of the entire brain's thoughts and feelings.
To become a tennis player you need to develop Physical – motor skills, general co-ordination, moving around the tennis court, hand eye co-ordination, hitting the tennis ball with the tennis racket Cognitive/intellectual - thinking the game, having a game plan, Emotion – self-esteem and self – expression some tennis players are quite where some are loud, handling negative moments when losing a match Communication – explaining how you’re playing, reasons for doing good and not so well, Behavioural and moral skills – taking turns in training, co-operating with others, social skills, having fun while playing, team work when playing doubles.
General pattern The pattern of development Children’s development follows a pattern: From head to toe Development progresses downwards. Physical control and co-ordination begins with a child’s head and develops down the body through the arms, hands and back, and finally to the legs and feet From inner to outer Development progresses from actions nearer the body to more complex ones further from the body. For example, children can co-ordinate their arms, using gross motor skills to reach for an object, before they have learned the fine motor skills necessary to use their fingers to pick it up. During puberty there is another growth spurt; this time the growth starts at the outside of the body and works inwards. Hands and feet expand first; the shin bones lengthen before the thigh, and the forearm before the upper arm; finally, the spine grows). From simple to complex Development progresses from simple actions to more complex ones. For example, children stand before they can walk, and walk before they can skip or hop. From general to specific Development progresses from general responses to specific ones.
For example, a young baby shows pleasure by a massive general response – the eyes widen, and the legs and arms move vigorously While an older child shows pleasure by smiling or using appropriate words or gestures. The several aspects of development are intricately linked: each affects and is affected by the others. For example, once children have reached the stage of emotional development at which they feel secure when apart from their main carer, they will have access to a much wider range of relationships, experiences and opportunities for learning.
Similarly, when children can use language effectively, they will have more opportunities for social contact. If one aspect is vulnerable or neglected in some way, children will be challenged in reaching their full potential. Areas of development page 2 The areas of development described in this book are these: Physical development Physical development is the way in which the body increases in skill and becomes more complex in its performance. There are two main areas: Gross motor skills: These use the large muscles in the body, and include walking, running, climbing and the like.
Fine motor skills: These include gross skills and fine skills. Gross manipulative skills involve single limb movements, usually of the arm, for example throwing, catching and making sweeping arm movements. Fine manipulative skills involve precise use of the hands and fingers, for example pointing, drawing, using a knife and fork or chopsticks, writing or doing up shoelaces. Sensory development Physical development also includes sensory development. Sensation is the process by which we receive information through the senses: vision hearing smell ouch taste proprioception. Proprioception is the sense that tells people where the mobile parts of their body, such as the arms and legs, are in relation to the rest of the body. Cognitive and language development Cognitive or intellectual development is development of the mind – the part of the brain that is used for recognising, reasoning, knowing and understanding. Perception involves people making sense of what they see, hear, touch, smell and taste. Perception is affected by previous experience and knowledge, and by the person’s emotional state at the time.
Language development Language development is the development of communication skills. These include skills in: receptive speech – what a person understands expressive speech – the words the person produces articulation – the person’s actual pronunciation of words. Emotional and social development Emotional development Emotional development involves the development of feelings: the growth of feelings about, and awareness of, oneself the development of feelings towards other people the development of self-esteem and a self-concept. Social development
Social development includes the growth of the child’s relationships with other people. Socialisation is the process of learning the skills and attitudes that enable the child to live easily with other members of the community. Moral and spiritual development Moral and spiritual development consists of a developing awareness of how to relate to others ethically, morally and humanely. It involves understanding values such as honesty and respect, and acquiring concepts such as right and wrong and responsibility for the consequences of one’s actions.