The Arabs, for centuries, studied the sky and examined the groups of stars and phases of the moon on their long desert travels. This education of space was adapted and developed to conform to the practice of Islam. During the medieval period of the Islamic world, the science of astrology as a branch from astronomy was translated by the Greeks into Arabic, along with Sasanian, Indian and ancient Egyptian influences, allowing more scientific and mathematical development by mathematicians and scientists of the Arab world. The subject came to be a very popular one, as it was taken interest in by scholars such as Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi, al-Biruni, and Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. There is evidence of this topic being widespread throughout the Islamic world, such as manuscripts and astrological records found in al-Fustat in Egypt.
Since there has proven to be much scientific evidence and involvement in the study of the stars and planets, how did this outbreak of information in the Islamic world affect Islamic Art? And why was it so significant?There is much architecture, objects and textiles from the Islamic World that express the significance of this topic, such as Qusayr 'Amra (figure 1) in Jordan, built by Umayyad caliph Walid II in the early 8th century, which features a frescoed caldarium ceiling depicting the twelve Zodiac constellations.
The exterior of the construction is very minimal; the only ornamentation being small domes and triple arches. Otherwise, the ornamentation becomes servant to the architecture. The techniques that were contributed into constructing Qusayr 'Amra references the Roman and Byzantine techniques: predominately limestone and terracotta brick, along with other types of stones. The frescoed ceilings in the caldarium, or the hot plunge bath, is said to be the earliest depiction of the stars painted on a domed surface. It features 35 recognizable constellations along with, as mentioned previously, twelve zodiacs.
There has been reported to be one mistake: the order of the stars in the counterclockwise direction, which tells that it is possible that the fresco was copied from a flat surface. This fresco, however, is not the only one in Qusayr 'Amra: there were many brilliant murals in several of the other chambers that suggest that the caliphs of this "pleasure palace" lived a luxurious lifestyle. This luxury tells of an involvement in The use of imagery in relation to astrology began in the twelfth century, and eventually taken in for its visual decorative quality, by the Ghaznavids and the Seljuqs among others, and they adopted it with their own meanings and influences.
The gilded and over glazed bowl (figure 2) depicts figures very close to those of the Kashan. There is Kufic inscriptions around the rim of the bowl, and the focal point is the sun-shaped face in the center, with a classical depiction of the six planets surrounding it. There are images of figures sitting on thrones, riding on horseback, and playing instruments composed in a radial composition, following the form of the object.
The only two seated figures on thrones sit across from each other on the band, with the other figures surrounding it. This motif combines two different motifs that are common in Islamic art together: the image of figures performing activities or in a scene depicted centrally to the object, as can be seen in the Stain- and overglaze-painted bowl (Ettinghausen, Grabar, Jenkins-Madina, 175), for example, and images of a single figure repeated to create a visual pattern, as demonstrated in the outer rim of Glazed and lustre-painted composite-bodied bowl (Ettinghausen, Grabar, Jenkins-Madina, 174). This royal bowl is very similar to the Stain- and overglaze-painted beaker (Ettinghausen, Grabar, Jenkins-Madina, 176) in the way that it has different tiers showing different figures in action repeated across the band of the beaker. The copper-alloy mirror (figure 3) is another royal artifact that utilizes the zodiacs as symbols of power made for Artuqid ruler Artuq Shah. The heavy-relief bird in the center of the mirror